The 32-year-old announced the news to his Wolverhampton Wanderers teammates, before a training session at Compton on Tuesday morning.
Ikeme took the decision, after consulting with medical experts, following his 12-month battle with acute leukaemia.
Last month, Ikeme announced on Twitter, that he was in complete remission from the disease, after “a tough year and intense chemotherapy”.
The goalkeeper has 10 caps for Nigeria and made 274 career appearances in all competitions, with over 200 of them coming for Wolves.
“Having been at the club since the age of 14, Carl is far more than just a player in our eyes – he is our brother and an important part of our family.
“When Carl came to tell us his news, yes there was sadness, but also great happiness to see him so healthy and hungry for the opportunities that lay ahead of him.
“Carl is strong, a fighter, something he has proven in his playing career and also during what has been a very challenging time for him, so I have no doubt he will be a success in whatever he does next.
“We wish Carl all the very best for the future, but remind him he will always remain a part of the Wolves family,” Wolves executive chairman, Jeff Shi said.