"The time has come after 10 years on the national team to say goodbye my favourite jersey," Subasic wrote in a letter published by the Croatian Football Federation (HNS), a day after striker Mario Mandzukic retired.
"I made my decision long before the World Cup because my dream was to end my career with the national team at a World Cup," Subasic added.
"The one in Russia was the most emotional moment of my career... thank you all," added the Monaco goalkeeper.
The native of Zadar made his debut for the "Vatreni" (Fiery Ones) in 2009.
At the World Cup in Russia he was the hero in the last 16 against Denmark, making three penalty saves in a nail-biting shootout.
In the quarter-finals, he stopped two goalbound shots to help eliminate hosts Russia, before seeing off England and then falling to France in the final.
His international retirement comes after Croatia striker Mario Mandzukic and defender Vedran Corluka also announced their international retirements.