The two former AC Milan players take over from Belgian Hugo Broos, who left last year after the Indomitable Lions failed to qualify for the World Cup in Russia.
Seedorf has had little success as a coach, failing to last six months in any of his previous roles with Milan, Chinese side Shenzhen and Deportivo La Coruna.
The 42-year-old won four Champions League titles as a player, though, and made 87 international appearances.
Ex-Barcelona striker Kluivert has had plenty of experience as an assistant coach in his home country, including with the Dutch national side, and spent a year as the Paris Saint-Germain director of football.
Cameroon will host the 2019 Africa Cup of Nations next June, where they will be the defending champions after lifting their fifth title in Gabon last year.